The Usages Of Oil Seals

Oil Seals are usually also referred to as soil, smooth, or perhaps grease seals. The key operate with this application is always to shut the particular places involving the relocating and also immobile the different parts of virtually any physical products. Seals aid in avoiding the particular avoid regarding lubricants.

This kind of application prevents virtually any damaging impurities to be able to get into the particular devices specifically inside intense surroundings. This kind of application takes on an essential function to get a productive car functioning and also appropriate operating of each sort of equipment. That aid shields all sorts of precision-constructed, roller, sleeve, and also close-fitting basketball bearings.

Regarding accurate bearings, Oil Seals aid in avoiding lubricants coming from working far from the particular bearings or perhaps spilling away from in the certain location. Regarding equipment parts, this kind of application aids inside avoiding the particular incident regarding corrosive wetness, abrasives and also prevents virtually any damaging impurities to be able to get into the device. Seals furthermore aid in avoiding intermixture regarding a couple of forms of method just like h2o and also lubricating oil.

Hence, it is vital to choose the right type of seal to your equipment. Determing the best maker or perhaps dealer is vital to locate an accurate securing layout. You will need to remember that grease seal need to match up for the aftermarket software or perhaps authentic products.

That is to make sure that the equipment could have a dependable and also steady efficiency. Oil and also grease seals are employed inside practically all sorts of machineries and it’s also found in myriad regarding software. Seals are employed inside strength transmitting, oil refineries, off-highway, producing, and also car software.

In the common program, Oil Seals is normally put in adjacent to the particular having. It really is both closed inside or perhaps closed out there since necessary from the devices with regards to the various forms of sound, unwanted gas, or perhaps drinks in which locate distinct device. Hence, you will need to remember that just before picking the particular lips substance or perhaps securing aspect, you ought to decide initial the particular running surroundings with the oil seal.

In that way, you will be confident you could hold the proper form of seal for your certain operate and also or perhaps device. Smooth seals may also be created from different ingredients and also components. It could both be manufactured coming from PTFE, tetrafluoro-ethylene propylene, fluoro-elastomer, plastic, polyacrylic or perhaps ethylene-acrylic, polyacrylate, nitrile, urethane, buckskin, and also sensed ingredients.

Professional form of Oil Seals can be for sale in various measurements for instance several are usually small-bore coming from no to be able to 13 ins. Additionally, there are high-temperature and also metric kinds of grease seals. Hence, you will need to use a specific securing layout which is matched up with all the authentic products in order to use a steady, correct and also trustworthy functioning.

The Common Misconceptions Of Rubber Gasket Seals

Do not be Confused By simply These kind of Beliefs with regards to Rubber Gasket Seals

Assortment factors help penis pumps along with spinning tools to function. You’ve got hardware seals, bolt, flange, along with gaskets to name a number of.

Gaskets are generally reasonably smaller in space, much that will often these are way too smaller pertaining to providers for you to group effectively. Having said that, that they participate in an important position throughout sealing substances, beverages, along with un wanted gas. Bolts along with flanges are crucial, way too, nonetheless they participate in additional associated with an addition position. For the flanged mutual to make available their ideal throughout sealability, gaskets might be of interest to start with.

Beliefs along with Faults When you use Rubber Gasket Seals

Often, men and women create your oversight involving missing your leakage charge as being a principal take into account your protection of an pipeline. A lot of in addition usually overlook completing good number of the correct gasket. The truth is, while deciding on a gasket, a good deal even now create numerous faults.

Down below can be a directory of widespread beliefs along with faults when you use gaskets.

To start with, a lot of consumers erroneously implement asbestos silicone denture straight into countless purposes convinced that this specific portion is often a widespread gasket. This specific belief can be fully inappropriate. Even though asbestos silicone china are generally non-metal Rubber Gasket Seals that one could depend upon regarding functionality, it’s not functional ample to get used on anything. The use of this gadget, and then significant leakage are going to be expected.

Something else a lot of people suppose can be that this larger your gasket, greater powerful it can be in sealing. This specific premiss can be phony, regardless if possessing normal water by yourself. Asbestos silicone china, as an illustration, is just not your thickest gasket out there. Nevertheless, they furnish off of drastically substantial important drive. Aside from, one can have a very larger leakage charge when you use a new larger gasket. Larger gaskets are certainly not genuinely the best choice from time to time.

Moreover, a number of in addition suppose that will slim gaskets are generally superior to bigger versions. Though slim gaskets get greater probability of boosting sealing strain, now by yourself won’t create slim versions any better. You’ll find purposes that will involve gaskets which has a distinct height. In case you’ll employ non-metal gaskets, by way of example, your Rubber Gasket Seals really should have some wider. In any other case, your important drive will not ample and you will probably turn out obtaining minor command around inside leakage.

The next belief can be the belief that get out of hand hurt gaskets are generally widespread while these are truly certainly not. Get out of hand hurt gaskets are certainly not used to be taken using flat-face flanges. Carried on using such a gasket using flat-face flanges can lead to your gasket speedily sacrificing their sealing expertise along with success as a result of incredible important drive they have for you to tolerate.

Finding out how to work with Rubber Gasket Seals, while to work with these people, along with the ones to work with is important if you need to complete the same task. The real key for you to profitable sealing should be to recognize which in turn sealing tools to work with pertaining to no matter what predicament. This specific guidebook need to enable you to stay away from faults which could charge your current output along with benefit. Different types involving gaskets are generally wonderful in case these are suited for the unique request is actually they have been made.

Some Common Misconceptions Of Rubber Gasket Seals

Avoid being Tricked Simply by These kinds of Misguided beliefs concerning Rubber Gasket Seals

Multitude parts permit pushes and also turning products to be effective. You might have physical seals, bolt, flange, and also gaskets to call a couple of.

Gaskets are usually comparatively tiny in proportions, a great deal in which at times they may be also tiny regarding companies to be able to bunch appropriately. However, they will enjoy an integral function inside sealing chemical compounds, drinks, and also unwanted gas. Products and also flanges are very important, also, nevertheless they enjoy a lot more of your accent function. To get a flanged shared to supply the finest inside sealability, gaskets is highly recommended above all.

Misguided beliefs and also Blunders When working with Rubber Gasket Seals

At times, folks help make the particular blunder regarding failing the particular loss fee being a major aspect in the particular basic safety of your pipeline. Several furthermore have a tendency to dismiss performing an intensive collection of the proper gasket. In reality, any time picking a gasket, a whole lot nonetheless help make many blunders.

Under will be a listing of frequent misguided beliefs and also blunders when working with gaskets.

To start, several people wrongly use asbestos plastic menu directly into numerous software thinking that this kind of aspect can be a general Rubber Gasket Seals. This kind of thought will be totally completely wrong. Although asbestos plastic discs are usually non-metal gaskets you could count on with regards to efficiency, it’s actually not adaptable adequate being placed on almost everything. If you utilize this revolutionary product, next key loss will probably be inescapable.

Yet another thing many individuals believe will be the plumper the particular gasket, the harder successful it really is with sealing. This kind of supposition will be bogus, even though having h2o on your own. Asbestos plastic discs, as an example, just isn’t the particular thickest gasket available in the market. But, they offer away from substantially large demanding push. In addition to, you can use a increased loss fee when working with any plumper gasket. Plumper gaskets usually are not actually your best option occasionally.

In addition, several furthermore believe in which filter gaskets are usually a lot better than larger kinds. Despite the fact that filter Rubber Gasket Seals have got far better odds of elevating sealing anxiety, this aspect on your own will not help make filter kinds any benefit. You can find software in which necessitate gaskets using a certain dimension. When you will utilize non-metal gaskets, as an example, the particular gasket needs to have a specific size. Normally, the particular demanding push will not be adequate and you should find yourself possessing tiny handle above interior loss.

An added false impression will be the fact control injure gaskets are usually general any time they may be in fact not necessarily. Control injure gaskets usually are not supposed to provide together with flat-face flanges. Continuing usage of this sort of gasket together with flat-face flanges will result in the particular gasket swiftly shedding the sealing skills and also performance due to great demanding push it’s got to be able to stand up to.

Focusing on how to utilize Rubber Gasket Seals, any time to utilize these, and also those that to utilize is really important in order to finish the same job. The main element to be able to productive sealing is always to comprehend which usually sealing products to utilize regarding whichever circumstance. This kind of information must allow you to steer clear of blunders that will expense the productiveness and also ease. Every type regarding gaskets are usually fantastic when they may be applied to the precise program which is why they are developed.

Electronic Assemblies Need Rubber Gasket Seal

Any Rubber Gasket Seals is frequently a fundamental piece of an electric assemblage. Seals, whether or not plastic or perhaps rubber, must guard the conclusion merchandise coming from enviromentally friendly ailments it is confronted with in the course of utilize.

Any rubber or perhaps plastic seal may be built to attain what exactly is referred to as a worldwide Defense Ranking. This kind of ranking can be an market common to be able to classify the amount regarding defense in opposition to sound things, airborne dirt and dust and also h2o. As an example: :

Regarding still dripping wet h2o the particular specs would have to become IP61
Regarding defense in opposition to h2o if the merchandise are at any 15 diploma perspective the particular specs could be IP62
To guard in opposition to sprayed h2o around 58 diplomas coming from top to bottom the particular specs could be IP63
To shield in opposition to splashed h2o coming from almost all sides you’ll designate IP64
Shields in opposition to h2o jets you’ll designate IP65
Regarding defense any time absorbed inside h2o to get a identified moment, degree There are numerous components which you can use to be able to make Rubber Gasket Seals; as a result you will need to make clear the particular envisaged surroundings any time seeking any estimate. You need to take into account; temperatures two opposites achievable, virtually any substance or perhaps solvent make contact with, bio-compatibility, power and also RF specifications, experience of sunshine and also UV.

When designing any gasket inside rubber, understand that the particular rubber will not lead capture pages about compression setting and also lessen inside amount, that simply deforms. Which means when you have any seal circumstance using a huge location to be able to seal in opposition to, it may demand a large compression setting to have equally confronts to be able to firmly companion with each other. You can find techniques to manage this challenge, which is often get over.

Rubber Gasket Seals may be created by extrusion strategies, punched coming from page in the event the report will be smooth, moulded simply by compression setting or perhaps treatment strategies. Most of these strategies demand tooling and also this can easily range between low priced regarding impact equipment to higher charges for your moulding compression setting or perhaps treatment equipment. The most effective approach will be in the end made a decision from the layout with the portion as well as the projected volumes necessary.

When designing the particular Rubber Gasket Seals know that simply by creating the particular report also difficult this kind of will result the particular portion expense but in addition result generally the particular tooling charges, expensive undercuts will mean an intricate application layout thus attempt to retain these kinds of with a bare minimum. Question the maker regarding advice on fixing the layout concerns, a seasoned maker can suggest just what characteristics are usually increasing the fee and also advise choices which could not necessarily earlier recently been regarded.

Do You Family With Oil Seals?

Have you been acquainted with the actual Oil Seals? In other words, it’s a component that’s accustomed to seal the actual oil. It’s the extremely important element with regard to a myriad of mechanised tools. Even though it is actually little, it’s software is very broad. To some extent, it’s high quality as well as qualities possess a immediate impact about the dependability from the mechanised gear. A few of these seals possess a year’s procedure existence. A few may just supply for many several weeks. These types of seals are often from support due to the oil seapage. Consequently, the actual operating effectiveness from the mechanised gear is actually critically impacted. At the same time, the actual manufacturing price is actually elevated and also the atmosphere is actually contaminated.

In most cases, the actual operating theory from the oil seal is straightforward. Within the free of charge situation, the interior size from the oil seal’s top is actually scaled-down compared to which from the base training collar. And contains the actual reduce in size variety. Following this seal is actually set up, the actual disturbance stress and also the shrinking pressure may produce the actual radial forced about the slewing axis. Whenever this particular seal is within procedure, the actual top from the oil seal may type the seal belt intoxicated by the actual radial forced. Underneath the stress from the lubricating oil the actual liquid spreads throughout the actual leading edge from the Oil Seals along with a coating associated with oil movie is actually created. The actual oil coating may avoid the oil seapage as well as perform an essential part within sealability.

Throughout procedure, there are plenty associated with elements which lead to the actual oil seapage. The actual poor sealability of the seal may be the key. Once the base is actually abraded critically as well as there’s a groove about the base, the actual oil seal will forfeit it’s sealability. Actually via individuals alter a brand new oil seal, the actual sealability nevertheless cannot be enhanced. Once the get in touch with stress between your top and also the base is actually decreased, the actual reduce in size variety gets really small and therefore the actual sealability gets really fragile.

How you can resolve the actual above-mentioned issue is going to be launched because adhere to. Very first, the fundamental technique would be to understand the data from the Oil Seals. After that individuals may determine the standard as well as perform. 2nd, examine and gaze after this particular seal frequently. So far as we all know, the actual oil seals in many cases are utilized in the actual severe operating problems. The actual distinction within heat is extremely large as well as there’s a large amount of dirt within the atmosphere. In the event that individuals don’t look at all of them, they’re very easily from support. 3rd, when the base training collar is actually critically abraded or even the actual rubberized of the seal gets aged, the actual associated elements ought to be fixed or even transformed instantly. 4th, the actual abandoned oil seals ought to be held correctly. Otherwise, the actual seals is going to be very easily discolored using the dirt or even oily grime. After that they’ll be from support.

Some Uses Of Oil Seals

Oil Seals tend to be also called grime, liquid, or even grease seals. The primary perform of the device would be to near the actual areas between your shifting as well as fixed aspects of any kind of mechanised gear. Seals assist in stopping the actual get away associated with lubricants.

This particular device halts any kind of dangerous pollutants in order to key in the actual equipment especially within severe conditions. This particular device performs an important part for any prosperous automobile procedure as well as correct working of each and every type of device. This assist safeguards a myriad of precision-constructed, roller, sleeve, as well as close-fitting golf ball bearings.

With regard to accuracy bearings, seals assist in stopping lubricants through operating from the actual bearings or even spilling away inside a particular region. With regard to device elements, this particular device assists within stopping the actual event associated with corrosive dampness, abrasives as well as halts any kind of dangerous pollutants in order to key in the equipment. Seals additionally assist in stopping intermixture associated with 2 types of moderate such as drinking water as well as lubricating oil.

Therefore, it is crucial to find the appropriate Oil Seals for the device. Finding the right producer or even provider is important to find an exact closing style. You should observe that grease seal should complement towards the aftermarket programs or even unique gear.

This really is to ensure your own device may have a trusted as well as constant overall performance. Oil as well as grease seals are utilized within nearly a myriad of machineries which is utilized in variety associated with programs. Seals are utilized within energy tranny, oil refineries, off-highway, production, as well as auto programs.

Inside a regular software, grime Oil Seals is generally set up next to the actual showing. It’s possibly covered within or even covered away because needed through the equipment with respect to the different types of strong, gas, or even fluids which stumbled upon a specific system. Therefore, you should observe that prior to choosing the actual top materials or even closing component, you need to figure out very first the actual working atmosphere from the oil seal.

In so doing, you may be certain that you could possess the correct kind of seal for that particular perform as well as or even system. Liquid seals will also be produced from numerous substances as well as supplies. It may possibly be produced through PTFE, tetrafluoro-ethylene propylene, fluoro-elastomer, silicon, polyacrylic or even ethylene-acrylic, polyacrylate, nitrile, urethane, leather-based, as well as experienced substances.

Commercial kind of Oil Seals can also be obtainable in different dimensions for example a few tend to be small-bore through absolutely no in order to 13 in .. There’s also high-temperature as well as metric types of grease seals. Therefore, you should possess a exact closing style that’s coordinated using the unique gear to help you possess a constant, precise as well as dependable procedure.

Use Rubber Gasket Seals In Electronic Assemblies

The Rubber Gasket Seals is usually a fundamental element of a digital set up. Seals, regardless of whether silicon or even rubber, have to safeguard the finish item through environment problems that it’s subjected to throughout make use of.

The rubber or even silicon seal could be made to accomplish what’s known as a global Safety Score. This particular score is definitely an business regular in order to classify their education associated with safety towards strong items, dirt as well as drinking water. For instance: –

With regard to leaking drinking water the actual standards will have to end up being IP61
With regard to safety towards drinking water once the item reaches the 15 level position the actual standards will be IP62
To safeguard towards dispersed drinking water as much as sixty levels through up and down the actual standards will be IP63
To protect towards splashed drinking water through just about all perspectives you’d stipulate IP64
Safeguards towards drinking water aircraft you’d stipulate IP65
With regard to safety whenever submerged within drinking water for any described period, level There are lots of supplies you can use in order to produce Rubber Gasket Seals; consequently you should explain the actual envisaged atmosphere whenever asking for the quote. You ought to think about; heat extreme conditions feasible, any kind of chemical substance or even solvent get in touch with, bio-compatibility, electric as well as RF needs, contact with sunlight as well as UV.

When making the gasket within rubber, keep in mind that the actual rubber doesn’t lead pages upon data compresion as well as decrease within quantity, this basically deforms. Which means that for those who have the seal scenario having a big region in order to seal towards, it might need a higher data compresion to obtain each encounters in order to safely partner collectively. You will find methods to cope with this issue, which may be conquer.

Rubber Gasket Seals could be made by extrusion techniques, punched through linen when the user profile is actually toned, molded through data compresion or even shot techniques. Many of these techniques need tooling which may vary from inexpensive with regard to strike resources to raised expenses for that moulding data compresion or even shot resources. The very best technique is actually eventually made the decision through the style from the component and also the believed amounts needed.

When making the actual Rubber Gasket Seals remember that through producing the actual user profile as well complex this particular won’t impact the actual component price but additionally impact mostly the actual tooling expenses, luxurious undercuts means an elaborate device style therefore try to maintain these types of to some minimal. Request your own producer with regard to suggestions about resolving your own style problems, a skilled producer will be able to recommend exactly what functions tend to be contributing to the price as well as recommend options that could not really formerly already been regarded as.

Grease Oil Seals,The Mark of a Well Oiled Machine

Whilst they are usually known as a variety of titles, Oil Seals, grease seals, liquid seals, as well as grime seals just about all achieve exactly the same job: they’ve the essential work associated with shutting the actual areas in between fixed as well as shifting components within a myriad of mechanised gear. With regard to from auto, commercial, as well as farming gear in order to production gear as well as device resources — oil as well as grease seals tend to be a complete requirement within today’s world with regards to getting the amount of overall performance as well as effectiveness which assists supply all of us using the numerous automobiles, items, as well as providers all of us take advantage of every single day.

The essential aspects of a myriad of bearings, through angular get in touch with bearings in order to cylindrical roller bearings are guarded through oil seals, to maintain their own specifically built assemblies secure as well as dependable all the time — within actually a few of the harshest programs.

Along with really shutting the actual areas as well as spaces in a variety of devices, resources, as well as automobiles, grease seals offer crucial safety towards dangerous contaminants. By using Oil Seals, exactly what requirements in which to stay the equipment (for example lubrication) will therefore, as well as exactly what must remain from the device (grime, particles, along with other pollutants) is actually held from it’s industrious as well as often-delicate components as well as elements.

Concurrently as well as particularly regarding device resources as well as device elements, oil seals perform a lot more compared to avoid the ingress associated with abrasives, dampness, as well as pollutants. Additionally they make sure that numerous fluids don’t blend collectively, for example oil dependent lubricants as well as drinking water.

There are lots of grease Oil Seals styles designed particularly to satisfy the requirements of numerous sectors. Although it may appear such as “a seal’s the seal” the particular style, supplies, as well as settings utilized could make a substantial distinction using programs. For instance, a few seal kinds tend to be designed to get rid of torque as well as rubbing, this permits the actual seal to maneuver using the bearings and also the additional device elements whilst concurrently avoiding contaminants. Additional seal types tend to be designed along with higher effectiveness in your mind. Whatever the necessity, the actual commercial globe offers think of a quantity of styles as well as ideas to provide the actual overall performance required for just about any software. A few of these seal kinds consist of:

Gentle responsibility offers
Durable seals
Rubber O Rings seals
Labyrinth seals
Several top seals

Regardless of whether you have actually actually regarded as oil as well as grease seals prior to. They’ve unquestionably impacted your lifetime and also the points you utilize every single day. Therefore the next time you consider exactly how everything encircling you’re produced — think about the effect of 1 small element: the actual grease Oil Seals.

The Common Misconception Of Rubber Gasket Seals

You shouldn’t be Misled Through These types of Myths regarding Rubber Gasket Seals

Variety elements allow sends as well as revolving gear to operate. You’ve mechanised seals, bolt, flange, as well as gaskets to mention several.

Gaskets tend to be fairly little in dimensions, a lot which occasionally they are as well little with regard to service providers in order to load up correctly. Nevertheless, these people perform a vital part within sealing chemical substances, fluids, as well as gas. Mounting bolts as well as flanges are essential, as well, however they perform much more of the item part. For any flanged combined to provide it’s greatest within sealability, gaskets should be thought about first of all.

Myths as well as Errors When utilizing Rubber Gasket Seals

Occasionally, individuals help to make the actual error associated with ignoring the actual seapage price like a main element in the actual security of the pipeline. Numerous additionally often disregard doing a comprehensive choice of the best gasket. Actually, whenever selecting a gasket, a great deal nevertheless help to make a number of errors.

Beneath is actually a summary of typical myths as well as errors when utilizing gaskets.

To begin with, numerous customers incorrectly utilize asbestos rubberized dish in to a lot of programs convinced that this particular element is really a common Rubber Gasket Seals. This particular idea is actually completely wrong. Whilst asbestos rubberized dishes tend to be non-metal gaskets that you could depend on when it comes to overall performance, it’s not flexible sufficient to become put on every thing. If you are using this product, after that main seapage is going to be unavoidable.

One more thing lots of people presume is actually how the heavier the actual gasket, the greater efficient it’s from sealing. This particular presumption is actually fake, even if keeping drinking water on it’s own. Asbestos rubberized dishes, for example, isn’t the actual thickest gasket on the market. However, they provide away considerably higher pushing pressure. Apart from, it is possible to possess a greater seapage price when utilizing the heavier gasket. Heavier gaskets aren’t truly the best option sometimes.

Furthermore, a few additionally presume which thin Rubber Gasket Seals tend to be much better than broader types. Even though thin gaskets possess much better likelihood of increasing sealing tension, this time on it’s own doesn’t help to make thin types much better. You will find programs which demand gaskets having a particular size. In the event that you are going to make use of non-metal gaskets, for instance, the actual gasket must have a particular thickness. Or else, the actual pushing pressure defintely won’t be sufficient and you will wind up getting small manage more than internal seapage.

Another misunderstanding is actually the fact that spin out of control injury gaskets tend to be common whenever they are really not really. Spin out of control injury gaskets aren’t designed to supply along with flat-face flanges. Ongoing utilization of this kind of gasket along with flat-face flanges can lead to the actual gasket rapidly dropping it’s sealing capabilities as well as usefulness due to the huge pushing pressure it’s in order to endure.

Understanding how to make use of Rubber Gasket Seals, whenever to make use of all of them, as well as those to make use of is very important if you wish to complete the job. The important thing in order to prosperous sealing would be to realize that sealing gear to make use of with regard to what ever scenario. This particular manual ought to assist you to prevent errors that may price your own efficiency as well as comfort. All sorts associated with gaskets tend to be excellent in the event that they are utilized on the particular software that they’ve been created.

Piston Seals For Pump

A great axial piston water pump provides several pistons (typically a great strange amount) set up in the spherical Oil Seals in just a property, which can be frequently called any tube obstruct, rotor or perhaps clip or barrel. This kind of tube obstruct will be pushed to be able to move concerning the axis regarding proportion simply by an important the whole length which is, about, in-line with all the growing pistons (typically parallel however, not automatically).

Developers have got several issues to be able to get over inside developing axial piston pushes. You are taking care of in order to make any water pump with all the great tolerances required for successful functioning. The particular mating confronts involving the rotary piston-cylinder assemblage as well as the immobile water pump physique must be practically a great close up even though the rotary portion transforms with, possibly, 3000 rpm. The particular pistons usually are not even half a great ” (13 mm) inside dimension together with related cerebrovascular accident programs. Preserving the particular wall structure to be able to Piston Seal limited ensures that tiny clearances may take place understanding that components must be strongly matched up regarding related coefficient regarding enlargement.

The particular pistons must be driven outwards inside their Seal Suppliers someway. About tiny pushes this is completed through any early spring in the tube in which makes the particular piston the tube. Inlet smooth strain can be set up so your smooth shoves the particular pistons the tube. Ordinarily a vane water pump will be situated on the identical push the whole length to offer this kind of strain looked after permits the particular water pump assemblage to be able to attract smooth in opposition to several suction brain from your water tank, which can be not an characteristic with the unaided axial piston water pump.

Water pump can easily consist of a lot of the essential routine handles integrally (the particular swash-plate perspective handle) to modify movement and also strain, become extremely trustworthy and invite other hydraulic method being very easy and also low-cost.